A fundamental ideal of American criminal justice is that you are innocent until proven guilty. With that, a defendant may not be punished until after he has his day in court.
Of course, defendants are routinely placed in jail before their court date. This is done generally to ensure their presence at trial. In most civilian jurisdictions, a bail/bond system exists so that the defendant (or their family...or a bail bondsman) will pay the court a sum of money which the court keeps as a bond until the defendant's trial date. If the defendant shows for trial, the money is returned to the defendant. If the defendant skips trial, the money is kept by the court. It is a system that generally works.
Assuming you can pay your bail, this gets you out of jail prior to your trial. This allows you to continue using your self-evident, fundamental right of liberty prior to your trial - to include preparing your defense.
But, under the UCMJ and its related rules, no bail/bond system exists. Instead, a military defendant may remain in pretrial confinement under the discretion of the chain of command or a military judge. Several laws and rules were enacted to try to protect against abuses of this scheme, including Article 10 of the UCMJ. That statute is an enhanced speedy trial right, which basically states that the prosecution must move diligently in taking a case to court-martial if the accused is in pretrial confinement.
Up until 1984, it was a statute that was used routinely by military courts to dismiss charges where the prosecution failed to give an accused a speedy trial. However, that year a new Rule for Court-Martial was created that codified certain speedy trial rules, which were more friendly to the prosecution, and with that the courts slowly stopped granting relief under Article 10.
Until last week with United States v. Cooley. The Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces dismissed several charges for an Article 10 violation by the Coast Guard. The discussion and the dismissal of charges most certainly indicates that Article 10 still has meaning. And with that, military defendants should know they still have a remedy if kept in pretrial confinement if the prosecution fails to bring him to trial in reasonably speedy fashion.